APPRAISAL OF REAL PROPERTY
Rural Properties in Argentina and Uruguay
Top Company Interviews
As of September 30, 2018
Fondo de La Legua 936,
Cushman & Wakefield Argentina S.R.L. Valuation Services, Capital Markets Group Pellegrini 1141 6 piso.
Buenos Aires, C1009ABW
CUSHMAN & WAKEFIELD ARGENTINA S.R.L. 1141 PELLEGRINI STREET, 6 FLOOR, BUENOS AIRES, C1009ABW.
September 30, 2018
Mr. Mario Jose Imbrosciano
Martinez, B1640FWB, Argentina.
Appraisal of Real Property
Rural Properties in Argentina Brazil and Uruguay.
Dear Mr. Imbrosciano:
In fulfillment of our agreement as outlined in the Letter of Engagement, we are pleased to transmit our appraisal of the above property in a summary report dated September 30, 2018.
This report was prepared for Adecoagro for internal purposes and is intended only for their specified use. It may not be distributed to or relied upon by any other persons or entities without the written permission of Cushman & Wakefield Argentina S.R.L.
This executive summary is intended to comply with the reporting requirements.
The properties appraised are 19 rural properties located in Argentina totalizing 229.556 hectares, 1 located in Uruguay with 3.177hectares, 1 located in Dianópolis totalizing 6,080 hectares and 4 in Angelica and 4 in Ivinhema, Brazil totalizing 13.291 hectares.
M A R K E T V A L U E A S I S
Based on the agreed to Scope of Work, and as outlined in the report, we developed an opinion that the Market Value of the Fee Simple estate of the above properties, subject to the assumptions and limiting conditions, certifications, extraordinary assumptions and hypothetical conditions, if any, and definitions, " As-is" on September 30, 2018, was:
EIGHT HUNDRED FORTY-SIX MILLION, SIX HUNDRED AND NINETY THOUSAND, SIX HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-FIVE US DOLLARS
E X T R A O R D I N A R Y A S S U M P T I O N S
This appraisal does not employ any hypothetical conditions.
H Y P O T H E T I C A L C O N D I T I O N S
This appraisal does not employ any hypothetical conditions.
This letter is invalid as an opinion of value if detached from the executive summary report, which contains the basis, scope and methodology.
CUSHMAN & WAKEFIELD ARGENTINA S.R.L
Julio C. Speroni
Valuation Manager, Argentina.
(5411) 5555-1119 Office Direct
G E N E R A L D E S C R I P T I O N
Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay
Properties in Argentina
Santiago del Estero
Santiago del Estero
Santiago del Estero
Properties in Uruguay
Properties in Brazil
Properties in Brazil
DATES OF INSPECTION AND VALUATION
Date of Valuation:
September 30, 2018
HIGHEST & BEST USE
An agricultural use that is developed to its financial potential.
As an agricultural use as currently improved.
I N T R O D U C T I O N
S C O P E O F W O R K
This appraisal, presented in a summary use report, is intended to comply with the reporting requirements set forth under USPAP for a summary use Appraisal Report.
The scope of this appraisal required collecting primary and secondary data relative to the subject property. The depth of the analysis is intended to be appropriate in relation to the significance of the appraisal issues as presented herein. The data have been analyzed and confirmed with sources believed to be reliable, in the normal course of business, leading to the value conclusions set forth in this report. In the context of completing this report, we have made a physical inspection of the subject property. The valuation process involved utilizing generally accepted market-derived methods and procedures considered appropriate to the assignment.
The data have been thoroughly analyzed and confirmed with sources believed to be reliable, leading to the value conclusions in this report. The valuation process used generally accepted market-derived methods and procedures appropriate to the assignment.
This appraisal employs only the sales Comparison Approach. Based on our analysis and knowledge of the subject property type and relevant property evidence, it is our opinion that this approach would be considered necessary and applicable for market participants. Because the subject property is a specialized land use, other appraisal methods are extremely rare and do not generally reflect market transactions.
Definitions of Value, Interest Appraised and Other Terms
The following definitions of pertinent terms are taken from The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, Fourth Edition (2002), published by the Appraisal Institute, as well as other sources.
Market value is one of the central concepts of the appraisal practice. Market value is differentiated from other types of value in that it is created by the collective patterns of the market. A current economic definition agreed upon by agencies that regulate federal financial institutions in the United States of America follows, taken from Advisory Opinion-22 of USPAP of The Appraisal Foundation:
The most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller, each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition is the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby:
Buyer and seller are typically motivated;
Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their own best interests;
A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market;
Payment is made in terms of cash in US dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and
The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale.
Value As Is
The value of specific ownership rights to an identified parcel of real estate as of the effective date of the appraisal; relates to what physically exists and is legally permissible and excludes all assumptions concerning hypothetical market conditions or possible rezoning.
Exposure Time and Marketing Time
Under Paragraph 3 of the Definition of Market Value, the value opinion presumes that "A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market". Exposure time is defined as the length of time the property interest being appraised would have been offered on the market prior to the hypothetical consummation of a sale at the market value on the effective date of the appraisal. Exposure time is presumed to precede the effective date of the appraisal.
The reasonable exposure period is a function of price, time and use. It is not an isolated opinion of time alone. Exposure time is different for various types of property and under various market conditions. As noted above, exposure time is always presumed to precede the effective date of appraisal. It is the length of time the property would have been offered prior to a hypothetical market value sale on the effective date of appraisal. It is a retrospective opinion based on an analysis of past events, assuming a competitive and open market. It assumes not only adequate, sufficient and reasonable time but adequate, sufficient and a reasonable marketing effort. Exposure time and conclusion of value are therefore interrelated.
Based on our review of national investor surveys, discussions with market participants and information gathered during the sales verification process, a reasonable exposure time for the subject property at the value concluded within this report would have been approximately six (6) months. This assumes an active and professional marketing plan would have been employed by the current owner.
Marketing time is an opinion of the time that might be required to sell a real property interest at the concluded market value level. Marketing time is presumed to start during the period immediately after the effective date of an appraisal. (Marketing time is subsequent to the effective date of the appraisal and exposure time is presumed to precede the effective date of the appraisal). The opinion of marketing time uses some of the same data analyzed in the process of developing a reasonable exposure time opinion as part of the appraisal process and it is not intended to be a prediction of a date of sale or a one-line statement.
We believe, based on the assumptions employed in our analysis, as well as our selection of investment parameters for the subject, that our value conclusion represents a price achievable within six (6) months.
V AL U A T I O N P R O C E S S
M E T H O D O L O G Y
There are three generally accepted approaches to developing an opinion of value: Cost, Sales Comparison and Income Capitalization. We considered each in this appraisal to develop an opinion of the market value of the subject property. In appraisal practice, an approach to value is included or eliminated based on its applicability to the property type being valued and the quality of information available. The reliability of each approach depends on the availability and comparability of market data as well as the motivation and thinking of purchasers.
The valuation process is concluded by analyzing each approach to value used in the appraisal. When more than one approach is used, each approach is judged based on its applicability, reliability, and the quantity and quality of its data. A final value opinion is chosen that either corresponds to one of the approaches to value, or is a correlation of all the approaches used in the appraisal.
We considered each approach in developing our opinion of the market value of the subject property. We discuss each approach below and conclude with a summary of their applicability to the subject property.
The Cost Approach is based on the proposition that an informed purchaser would pay no more for the subject than the cost to produce a substitute property with equivalent utility. This approach is particularly applicable when the property being appraised involves relatively new improvements which represent the Highest and Best Use of the land; or when relatively unique or specialized improvements are located on the site for which there are few improved sales or leases of comparable properties.
In the Cost Approach, the appraiser forms an opinion of the cost of all improvements, depreciating them to reflect any value loss from physical, functional and external causes. Land value, entrepreneurial profit and depreciated improvement costs are then added, resulting in an opinion of value for the subject property.
SALES COMPARISON APPROACH
In the Sales Comparison Approach, sales of comparable properties are adjusted for differences to estimate a value for the subject property. A unit of comparison such as price per square foot of building area or effective gross income multiplier is typically used to value the property. When developing an opinion of land value the analysis is based on recent sales of sites of comparable zoning and utility, and the typical units of comparison are price per square foot of land, price per acre, price per unit, or price per square foot of potential building area. In both cases, adjustments are applied to the unit of comparison from an analysis of comparable sales, and the adjusted unit of comparison is then used to derive an opinion of value for the subject property.
INCOME CAPIT ALIZ ATION APPRO ACH
In the Income Capitalization Approach, the income-producing capacity of a property is estimated by using contract rents on existing leases and by estimating market rent from rental activity at competing properties for the vacant space. Deductions are then made for vacancy and collection loss and operating expenses. The resulting net operating income is divided by an overall capitalization rate to derive an opinion of value for the subject property. The capitalization rate represents the relationship between net operating income and value. This method is referred to as Direct Capitalization.
Related to the Direct Capitalization Method is the Discounted Cash Flow Method. In this method, periodic cash flows (which consist of net operating income less capital costs) and a reversionary value are developed and
discounted to a present value using an internal rate of return that is determined by analyzing current investor yield requirements for similar investments.
S U M M A R Y
This appraisal employs only the Sales Comparison Approach. Based on our analysis and knowledge of the subject property type and relevant investor profiles, it is our opinion that this approach would be considered necessary and applicable for market participants. Because the subject property is a common land use in the neighborhood and there are not significant improvements in the properties, comparable are available and reflect market transactions. Additionally, the subject land use is not typically marketed, purchased or sold on the basis of anticipated lease-revenue. Therefore, we have not employed the Cost Approach or the Income Capitalization Approach to develop an opinion of market value.
RECONCILIATION AND FINAL VALUE OPINION
F I N AL V AL U E O P I N I O N
M A R K E T V A L U E A S I S
Based on the Scope of Work agreed to with the Client, and as outlined in the accompanying report, we have developed an opinion that the Market Value of the Fee Simple estate of the subject property, subject to the assumptions and limiting conditions, certifications, extraordinary assumptions and hypothetical conditions, if any, and definitions, "As-Is" on September 30, 2018, was:
EIGHT HUNDRED FORTY-SIX MILLION, SIX HUNDRED AND NINETY THOUSAND, SIX HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-FIVE US DOLLARS.
E X P O S U R E T I M E
Based on our review of national investor surveys, discussions with market participants and information gathered during the sales verification process, a reasonable exposure time for the subject property at the value concluded within this report would have been approximately twelve (12) months. This assumes an active and professional marketing plan would have been employed by the current owner.
ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITING CONDITIONS
A S S U M P T I O N S AN D L I M I T I N G C O N D I T I O N S
"Report" means the appraisal or consulting report and conclusions stated therein, to which these Assumptions and Limiting Conditions are annexed.
"Property" means the subject of the Report.
"C&W" means Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. or its subsidiary that issued the Report. "Appraiser(s)" means the employee(s) of C&W who prepared and signed the Report.. The Report has been made subject to the following assumptions and limiting conditions:
No opinion is intended to be expressed and no responsibility is assumed for the legal description or for any matters that are legal in nature or require legal expertise or specialized knowledge beyond that of a real estate appraiser. Title to the Property is assumed to be good and marketable and the Property is assumed to be free and clear of all liens unless otherwise stated. No survey of the Property was undertaken.
The information contained in the Report or upon which the Report is based has been gathered from sources the Appraiser assumes to be reliable and accurate. The owner of the Property may have provided some of such information. Neither the Appraiser nor C&W shall be responsible for the accuracy or completeness of such information, including the correctness of estimates, opinions, dimensions, sketches, exhibits and factual matters. Any authorized user of the Report is obligated to bring to the attention of C&W any inaccuracies or errors that it believes are contained in the Report.
The opinions are only as of the date stated in the Report. Changes since that date in external and market factors or in the Property itself can significantly affect the conclusions in the Report.
The Report is to be used in whole and not in part. No part of the Report shall be used in conjunction with any other analyses. Publication of the Report or any portion thereof without the prior written consent of C&W is prohibited. Reference to the Appraisal Institute or to the MAI designation is prohibited. Except as may be otherwise stated in the letter of engagement, the Report may not be used by any person(s) other than the party(ies) to whom it is addressed or for purposes other than that for which it was prepared. No part of the Report shall be conveyed to the public through advertising, or used in any sales, promotion, offering or SEC material without C&W's prior written consent. Any authorized user(s) of this Report who provides a copy to, or permits reliance thereon by, any person or entity not authorized by C&W in writing to use or rely thereon, hereby agrees to indemnify and hold C&W, its affiliates and their respective shareholders, directors, officers and employees, harmless from and against all damages, expenses, claims and costs, including attorneys' fees, incurred in investigating and defending any claim arising from or in any way connected to the use of, or reliance upon, the Report by any such unauthorized person(s) or entity(ies).
Except as may be otherwise stated in the letter of engagement, the Appraiser shall not be required to give testimony in any court or administrative proceeding relating to the Property or the Appraisal.
The Report assumes (a) responsible ownership and competent management of the Property; (b) there are no hidden or unapparent conditions of the Property, subsoil or structures that render the Property more or less valuable (no responsibility is assumed for such conditions or for arranging for engineering studies that may be required to discover them); (c) full compliance with all applicable federal, state and local zoning and environmental regulations and laws, unless noncompliance is stated, defined and considered in the Report; and (d) all required licenses, certificates of occupancy and other governmental consents have been or can be obtained and renewed for any use on which the value opinion contained in the Report is based.
The physical condition of the improvements considered by the Report is based on visual inspection by the Appraiser or other person identified in the Report. C&W assumes no responsibility for the soundness of structural components or for the condition of mechanical equipment, plumbing or electrical components.
ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITING CONDITIONS
The forecasted potential gross income referred to in the Report may be based on lease summaries provided by the owner or third parties. The Report assumes no responsibility for the authenticity or completeness of lease information provided by others. C&W recommends that legal advice be obtained regarding the interpretation of lease provisions and the contractual rights of parties.
The forecasts of income and expenses are not predictions of the future. Rather, they are the Appraiser's best opinions of current market thinking on future income and expenses. The Appraiser and C&W make no warranty or representation that these forecasts will materialize. The real estate market is constantly fluctuating and changing. It is not the Appraiser's task to predict or in any way warrant the conditions of a future real estate market; the Appraiser can only reflect what the investment community, as of the date of the Report, envisages for the future in terms of rental rates, expenses and supply and demand.
Unless otherwise stated in the Report, the existence of potentially hazardous or toxic materials that may have been used in the construction or maintenance of the improvements or may be located at or about the Property was not considered in arriving at the opinion of value. These materials (such as formaldehyde foam insulation, asbestos insulation and other potentially hazardous materials) may adversely affect the value of the Property. The Appraisers are not qualified to detect such substances. C&W recommends that an environmental expert be employed to determine the impact of these matters on the opinion of value.
Unless otherwise stated in the Report, compliance with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) has not been considered in arriving at the opinion of value. Failure to comply with the requirements of the ADA may adversely affect the value of the Property. C&W recommends that an expert in this field be employed to determine the compliance of the Property with the requirements of the ADA and the impact of these matters on the opinion of value.
If the Report is submitted to a lender or investor with the prior approval of C&W, such party should consider this Report as only one factor, together with its independent investment considerations and underwriting criteria, in its overall investment decision. Such lender or investor is specifically cautioned to understand all Extraordinary Assumptions and Hypothetical Conditions and the Assumptions and Limiting Conditions incorporated in this Report.
In the event of a claim against C&W or its affiliates or their respective officers or employees or the Appraisers in connection with or in any way relating to this Report or this engagement, the maximum damages recoverable shall be the amount of the monies actually collected by C&W or its affiliates for this Report and under no circumstances shall any claim for consequential damages be made.
If the Report is referred to or included in any offering material or prospectus, the Report shall be deemed referred to or included for informational purposes only and C&W, its employees and the Appraiser have no liability to such recipients. C&W disclaims any and all liability to any party other than the party that retained C&W to prepare the Report.
Any estimate of insurable value, if included within the agreed upon scope of work and presented within this report, is based upon figures derived from a national cost estimating service and is developed consistent with industry practices. However, actual local and regional construction costs may vary significantly from our estimate and individual insurance policies and underwriters have varied specifications, exclusions andnon-insurable items. As such, we strongly recommend that the Client obtain estimates from professionals experienced in establishing insurance coverage for replacing any structure. This analysis should not be relied upon to determine insurance coverage. Furthermore, we make no warranties regarding the accuracy of this estimate.
By use of this Report each party that uses this Report agrees to be bound by all of the Assumptions and Limiting Conditions, Hypothetical Conditions and Extraordinary Assumptions stated herein.
CERTIFICATION OF APPRAISAL
C E R T I F I C AT I O N O F AP P R AI S AL
We certify that, to the best of our knowledge and belief:
The statements of fact contained in this report are true and correct.
The reported analyses, opinions, and conclusions are limited only by the reported assumptions and limiting conditions, and are our personal, impartial, and unbiased professional analyses, opinions, and conclusions.
We have no present or prospective interest in the property that is the subject of this report, and no personal interest with respect to the parties involved.
We have no bias with respect to the property that is the subject of this report or to the parties involved with this assignment.
Our engagement in this assignment was not contingent upon developing or reporting predetermined results.
Our compensation for completing this assignment is not contingent upon the development or reporting of a predetermined value or direction in value that favors the cause of the client, the amount of the value opinion, the attainment of a stipulated result, or the occurrence of a subsequent event directly related to the intended use of this appraisal.
The reported analyses, opinions, and conclusions were developed, and this report has been prepared, in conformity with the requirements of the Code of Professional Ethics & Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice of the Appraisal Institute, which include the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice.
The use of this report is subject to the requirements of the Appraisal Institute relating to review by its duly authorized representatives.
No one provided significant real property appraisal assistance to the persons signing this report.
Julio C. Speroni
(5411) 5555-1119 Office Direct
G L O S S AR Y O F T E R M S & D E F I N I T I O N S
The following definitions of pertinent terms are taken from The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, Fourth Edition (2002), published by the Appraisal Institute, Chicago, IL, as well as other sources.
AC C RUE D DE P RE CI ATI O N
1. In appraisal, a loss in property value from any cause; the difference between the reproduction or replacement cost of an improvement on the effective date of the appraisal and the market value of the improvement on the same date. 2. In regard to improvements, depreciation encompasses both deterioration and obsolescence. 3. In accounting, an allowance made against the loss in value of an asset for a defined purpose and computed using a specific method.
BAN D OF INV E S TM E NT AN AL YS I S
A technique in which the capitalization rates attributable to components of capital investment are weighted and computed to derive a weighted average rate attributable to the total investment.
CAS H EQ UI V ALE N CE
A price expressed in terms of cash, as distinguished from a price expressed totally or partly in terms of the face amounts of notes or other securities that cannot be sold at their face amounts. Calculating the cash-equivalent price requires an appraiser to compare transactions involving atypical financing to transactions involving comparable properties financed at typical market terms.
ELLW OOD FORM UL A
Yield capitalization method that provides a formulaic solution for developing a capitalization rate for various combinations of equity yields and mortgage terms. The formula is applicable only to properties with stable or stabilized income streams and properties with income streams expected to change according to the J- or K- factor pattern.
EX P OS URE TI M E
The length of time the property being appraised would have been offered on the market prior to the hypothetical consummation of a sale at the market value on the effective date of the appraisal. Exposure time is presumed to precede the effective date of the appraisal.
The reasonable exposure period is a function of price, time and use. It is not an isolated opinion of time alone. Exposure time is different for various types of property and under various market conditions. It is a retrospective opinion based on an analysis of past events, assuming a competitive and open market. It assumes not only adequate, sufficient and reasonable time but adequate, sufficient and a reasonable marketing effort. Exposure time and conclusion of value are therefore interrelated.
EX TR AO R DI N AR Y AS S UM P TI ONS
An extraordinary assumption is "an assumption, directly related to a specific assignment, which, if found to be false, could alter the appraiser's opinions or conclusions. Extraordinary assumptions presume as fact otherwise uncertain information about physical, legal or economic characteristics of the subject property; or about conditions external to the property, such as market conditions or trends; or about the integrity of data used in an analysis."
FE E SI M P LE ES T ATE
Absolute ownership unencumbered by any other interest or estate, subject only to the limitations imposed by the governmental powers of taxation, eminent domain, police power, and escheat.
HYP O THE TI C AL CO NDI TI ONS
A hypothetical condition is "that which is contrary to what exists but is supposed for the purpose of analysis. Hypothetical conditions assume conditions contrary to known facts about physical, legal, or economic characteristics of the subject property; or about conditions external to the property, such as market conditions or trends; or about the integrity of data used in an analysis."
INS U R AB LE VAL UE
The value of an asset or asset group that is covered by an insurance policy; can be estimated by deducting costs of noninsurable items (e.g., land value) from market value.
Value used by insurance companies as the basis for insurance. Often considered to be replacement or reproduction cost plus allowances for debris removal or demolition less deterioration and noninsurable items. Sometimes cash value or market value, but often entirely a cost concept. (Marshall & Swift LP)
LE AS E D FE E IN TE RE S T
An ownership interest held by a landlord with the rights of use and occupancy conveyed by lease to others. The rights of the lessor (the leased fee owner) and the lessee are specified by contract terms contained within the lease.
LE AS E HOLD IN TE RE S T
The interest held by the lessee (the tenant or renter) through a lease transferring the rights of use and occupancy for a stated term under certain conditions.
MARKE T RE N T
The most probable rent that a property should bring in a competitive and open market reflecting all conditions and restrictions of the specified lease agreement including term, rental adjustment and revaluation, permitted uses, use restrictions, and expense obligations; the lessee and lessor each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming consummation of a lease contract as of a specified date and the passing of the leasehold from lessor to lessee under conditions whereby:
Lessee and lessor are typically motivated.
Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their best interests.
A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market.
The rent payment is made in terms of cash in United States dollars, and is expressed as an amount per time period consistent with the payment schedule of the lease contract.
The rental amount represents the normal consideration for the property lease unaffected by special fees or concessions granted by anyone associated with the transaction.
MARKE T VAL UE
The most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition is the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby:
Buyer and seller are typically motivated;
Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their best interests;
A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market;
Payment is made in terms of cash in United States dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and
The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale. (12 C.F.R. Part 34.42(g)Federal Register34696, August 24, 1990, as amended at 57 Federal Register12202, April 9, 1992; 59 Federal Register29499, June 7, 1994)
MORTG AGE - EQ UI TY AN AL YS I S
Capitalization and investment analysis procedures that recognize how mortgage terms and equity requirements affect the value of income-producing property.
OP E R ATI NG E X P E NS E S
Other Taxes, Fees & Permits- Personal property taxes, sales taxes, utility taxes, fees and permit expenses.Property Insurance- Coverage for loss or damage to the property caused by the perils of fire, lightning, extended coverage perils, vandalism and malicious mischief, and additional perils.
Management Fees- The sum paid for management services. Management services may be contracted for or provided by the property owner. Management expenses may include supervision, on-site offices or apartments for resident managers, telephone service, clerical help, legal or accounting services, printing and postage, and advertising. Management fees may occasionally be included among recoverable operating expenses
Total Administrative Fees- Depending on the nature of the real estate, these usually include professional fees and other general administrative expenses, such as rent of offices and the services needed to operate the property. Administrative expenses can be provided either in the following expense subcategories or in a bulk total. 1) Professional Fees - Fees paid for any professional services contracted for or incurred in property operation; or 2) Other Administrative - Any other general administrative expenses incurred in property operation.
Heating Fuel -The cost of heating fuel purchased from outside producers. The cost of heat is generally a tenant expense in single-tenant, industrial or retail properties, and apartment projects with individual heating units. It is a major expense item shown in operating statements for office buildings and many apartment properties. The fuel consumed may be coal, oil, or public steam. Heating supplies, maintenance, and workers' wages are included in this expense category under certain accounting methods.
Electricity -The cost of electricity purchased from outside producers. Although the cost of electricity for leased space is frequently a tenant expense, and therefore not included in the operating expense statement, the owner may be responsible for lighting public areas and for the power needed to run elevators and other building equipment.
Gas- The cost of gas purchased from outside producers. When used for heating and air conditioning, gas can be a major expense item that is either paid by the tenant or reflected in the rent.
Water & Sewer -The cost of water consumed, including water specially treated for the circulating ice water system, or purchased for drinking purposes. The cost of water is a major consideration for industrial plants that use processes depending on water and for multifamily projects, in which the cost of sewer service usually ties to the amount of water used. It is also an important consideration for laundries, restaurants, taverns, hotels, and similar operations.
Other Utilities- The cost of other utilities purchased from outside producers.
Total Utilities- The cost of utilities net of energy sales to stores and others. Utilities are services rendered by public and private utility companies (e.g., electricity, gas, heating fuel, water/sewer and other utilities providers). Utility expenses can be provided either in expense subcategories or in a bulk total. Repairs & Maintenance -All expenses incurred for the general repairs and maintenance of the building, including common areas and general upkeep. Repairs and maintenance expenses include elevator, HVAC, electrical and plumbing, structural/roof, and other repairs and maintenance expense items. Repairs and Maintenance expenses can be provided either in the following expense subcategories or in a bulk total. 1) Elevator - The expense of the contract and any additional expenses for elevator repairs and maintenance. This expense item may also include escalator repairs and maintenance. 2) HVAC - The expense of the contract and any additional expenses for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. 3) Electrical & Plumbing - The expense of all repairs and maintenance associated with the property's electrical and plumbing systems. 4) Structural/Roof - The expense of all repairs and maintenance associated with the property's building structure and roof. 5) Pest Control - The expense of insect and rodent control. 6). Other Repairs & Maintenance - The cost of any other repairs and maintenance items not specifically included in other expense categories.
Common Area Maintenance -The common area is the total area within a property that is not designed for sale or rental, but is available for common use by all owners, tenants, or their invitees, e.g., parking and its appurtenances, malls, sidewalks, landscaped areas, recreation areas, public toilets, truck and service facilities. Common Area Maintenance (CAM) expenses can be entered in bulk or through the sub-categories. 1) Utilities - Cost of utilities that are
included in CAM charges and passed through to tenants. 2) Repair & Maintenance - Cost of repair and maintenance items that are included in CAM charges and passed through to tenants. 3) Parking Lot Maintenance - Cost of parking lot maintenance items that are included in CAM charges and passed through to tenants. 4) Snow Removal - Cost of snow removal that are included in CAM charges and passed through to tenants. 5) Grounds Maintenance - Cost of ground maintenance items that are included in CAM charges and passed through to tenants. 6) Other CAM expenses are items that are included in CAM charges and passed through to tenants.
Painting & Decorating -This expense category is relevant to residential properties where the landlord is required to prepare a dwelling unit for occupancy in between tenancies.
Cleaning & Janitorial- The expenses for building cleaning and janitorial services, for both daytime and night-time cleaning and janitorial service for tenant spaces, public areas, atriums, elevators, restrooms, windows, etc. Cleaning and Janitorial expenses can be provided either in the following subcategories or entered in a bulk total. 1) Contract Services - The expense of cleaning and janitorial services contracted for with outside service providers. 2) Supplies, Materials & Misc. - The cost any cleaning materials and any other janitorial supplies required for property cleaning and janitorial services and not covered elsewhere. 3) Trash Removal - The expense of property trash and rubbish removal and related services. Sometimes this expense item includes the cost of pest control and/or snow removal .4) Other Cleaning/Janitorial - Any other cleaning and janitorial related expenses not included in other specific expense categories.
Advertising & Promotion -Expenses related to advertising, promotion, sales, and publicity and all related printing, stationary, artwork, magazine space, broadcasting, and postage related to marketing.
Professional Fees- All professional fees associated with property leasing activities including legal, accounting, data processing, and auditing costs to the extent necessary to satisfy tenant lease requirements and permanent lender requirements.
Total Payroll- The payroll expenses for all employees involved in the ongoing operation of the property, but whose salaries and wages are not included in other expense categories. Payroll expenses can be provided either in the following subcategories or entered in a bulk total. 1) Administrative Payroll - The payroll expenses for all employees involved in on-going property administration. 2) Repair & Maintenance Payroll - The expense of all employees involved in on-going repairs and maintenance of the property. 3) Cleaning Payroll - The expense of all employees involved in providing on-going cleaning and janitorial services to the property 4) Other Payroll - The expense of any other employees involved in providing services to the property not covered in other specific categories.
Security -Expenses related to the security of the Lessees and the Property. This expense item includes payroll, contract services and other security expenses not covered in other expense categories. This item also includes the expense of maintenance of security systems such as alarms and closed circuit television (CCTV), and ordinary supplies necessary to operate a security program, including batteries, control forms, access cards, and security uniforms.
Roads & Grounds -The cost of maintaining the grounds and parking areas of the property. This expense can vary widely depending on the type of property and its total area. Landscaping improvements can range from none to extensive beds, gardens and trees. In addition, hard-surfaced public parking areas with drains, lights, and marked car spaces are subject to intensive wear and can be costly to maintain.
Other Operating Expenses- Any other expenses incurred in the operation of the property not specifically covered elsewhere.
Real Estate Taxes -The tax levied on real estate (i.e., on the land, appurtenances, improvements, structures and buildings); typically by the state, county and/or municipality in which the property is located.
PR OS P E C TI V E VAL UE OP I NI ON
A forecast of the value expected at a specified future date. A prospective value opinion is most frequently sought in connection with real estate projects that are proposed, under construction, or under conversion to a new use, or that have not achieved sellout or a stabilized level of long-term occupancy at the time the appraisal report is written.
PR OS P E C TI V E VAL UE UP ON RE AC HI N G ST AB I LI ZE D OCC UP AN C Y
The value of a property as of a point in time when all improvements have been physically constructed and the property has been leased to its optimum level of long-term occupancy. At such point, all capital outlays for tenant improvements, leasing commissions, marketing costs and other carrying charges are assumed to have been incurred.
VAL UE AS IS
The value of specific ownership rights to an identified parcel of real estate as of the effective date of the appraisal. It relates to what physically exists and is legally permissible and excludes all assumptions concerning hypothetical market conditions or possible rezoning.
DisclaimerAdecoagro SA published this content on 30 September 2019 and is solely responsible for the information contained therein. Distributed by Public, unedited and unaltered, on 30 September 2019 20:33:02 UTC
Top Company Interviews
Register for a Free Account to gain greater access to
The Wall Street Transcript right now